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top of pageABSTRACT

After several years of chronic shortages of trained personnel, the economic recession of the past two years has resulted in some unemployment within the computer field. This unemployment has emphasized the long existing need for better overall manpower planning. Such planning can only be carried on successfully if reasonably reliable data and projections are available. The information collected and the resulting projections must include both the employment needs and the sources of trained personnel. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the current employment picture especially as it relates to the users of computers. A companion paper in these proceedings discusses the primary sources of such trained personnel.

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Author image not provided  Bruce Gilchrist

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Publication years1959-1983
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Citation Count16
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Author image not provided  Richard E. Weber

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Publication years1971-1975
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top of pageREFERENCES

Note: OCR errors may be found in this Reference List extracted from the full text article. ACM has opted to expose the complete List rather than only correct and linked references.

1
 
2
Occupational outlook handbook US Department of Labor Washington DC 1970--71
 
3
B Gilchrist Manpower statistics in the information processing field Computers and Automation Vol 18 No 10 September 1969
 
4
Area wage surveys Bureau of Labor Statistics Washington DC 1969--71
 
5
Office of Management and Budget Circular No A-83 Washington DC 1967
 
6
Summary of ADP activities on cost, manpower, utilization in the United States government for fiscal year 1970 US Government Printing Office Washington DC 1971
 
7
Information systems technology in state government NASIS Report The Council of State Governments Lexington Ky Dec 1970
 
8
Public employment in 1970 US Department of Commerce Washington, DC, April 1971
 
9
Municipal government wage survey Atlanta, Georgia, May 1970 Bureau of Labor Statistics Atlanta Ga Dec 1970
 
10
Municipal government wage survey Boston, Massachusetts, June 1970 Bureau of Labor Statistics Boston Mass 1970
 
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Municipal government wage survey Kansas City, Missouri, May 1970 Bureau of Labor Statistics Kansas City Mo 1970
 
12
Municipal government wage survey Chicago, Illinois, May 1970 Bureau of Labor Statistics Chicago Ill Feb 1971
 
13
Municipal government wage survey Buffalo, New York, October 1970 Bureau of Labor Statistics New York NY May 1971
 
14
Municipal government wage survey New Orleans, Louisiana, May 1970 Bureau of Labor Statistics Dallas Texas Dec 1970
 
15
Municipal government salary survey Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 1970 Bureau of Labor Statistics Philadelphia Pa Jan 1971
 
16
Information systems for the city of New York, Vol IV Office of the Mayor New York City March 1969
 
17
Municipal government wage survey, New York City Bureau of Labor Statistics New York June 1971
 
18
The economy at mid-year 1971 with industry projections for 1972 US Department of Commerce Washington DC Aug 1971
 
19
Employment and earnings US Department of Labor Washington DC Monthly
 
20
J D Humphries Future staff needs National Computer Center Newsletter No 19 Manchester England Feb/March 1970
 
21
EDP nationwide salaries report---1971 Business Automation June 1971
 
22
Private Communication from Patrick McGovern President International Data Corporation Oct 1971
 
23
Occupational manpower training needs Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin No 1701 Washington DC 1971

top of pageCITED BY

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top of pagePUBLICATION

Title AFIPS '72 (Spring) Proceedings of the May 16-18, 1972, spring joint computer conference table of contents
Pages 641-648
Publication Date1972-05-16 (yyyy-mm-dd)
Sponsor AFIPS American Federation of Information Processing Societies
PublisherACM New York, NY, USA ©1972
Order Number: Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 55-44701 doi>10.1145/1478873.1478959
Conference AFIPSAFIPS Joint Computer Conferences

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top of pageTable of Contents

Proceedings of the May 16-18, 1972, spring joint computer conference
Table of Contents
SESSION: Implementation of programming language processors
An appraisal of compiler technology
Robert M. McClure
Pages: 1-9
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478875
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Although the last decade has seen the implementation of a very large number of compilers for every conceivable language, the literature on compiler writing is still unorganized. There are many papers on formal languages, syntactic analysis, graph theoretic ...
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A laboratory for the study of automating programming
T. E. Cheatham, Jr., Ben Wegbreit
Pages: 11-21
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478876
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We are concerned in this paper with facilities, tools, and techniques for automating programming and thus we had best commence with discussing what we mean by programming. Given a precise specification of some task to be accomplished or some abstract ...
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Segmentation and optimization of programs from cyclic structure analysis
Jean-Loup Baer, Robert Caughey
Pages: 23-36
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478877
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Modelling of computer programs by directed graphs, where the vertices represent the computational tasks and the arcs show the flow of control, has been used for optimization purposes, parallel processing evaluation, and segmentation. All these studies ...
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SESSION: Frontiers of large-scale scientific computation
The interplay of computer science and large scale scientific calculations
Kent K. Curtis
Pages: 37-43
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478879
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The history of computing has been characterized by the statement that what the manufacturer makes, the customer takes. To the extent that this is true, it is not only an interesting and perceptive comment on history but also a testimonial to the remarkable ...
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Computer architecture and very large problems
R. B. Lazarus
Pages: 45-49
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478880
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For the purposes of this paper, "very large problems" are defined by two properties: (1) There is an effectively unlimited amount of physics and of spatial detail which it would be useful to include if practical; and (2) the calculation must be completed ...
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Scientific applications of computers in the '70s
M. Stuart Lynn
Pages: 51-52
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478881
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It is still fashionable to predict that what happens in the future of computing will be a glorified extension of what has happened in the past. Thus, the last decade has seen an explosion in all uses of computers and therefore, so the fashion would dictate, ...
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SESSION: Training commercial programmers and systems analysts
The functions and elements of a training system
B. A. Jones
Pages: 53-58
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478883
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"From a systems point of view, the design of an operation which can successfully carry out the training function becomes a problem of creating a system to accomplish a given end result or objective. In the case of training, this end result is to effect ...
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Planning data processing education to meet job requirements
James O. Hammond
Pages: 59-67
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478884
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The greatest single expenditure that a data processing organization has today is for its human resource. This has been dramatically illustrated in several well-known studies. The cost of human resources continues to rise in data processing. Computers ...
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Modular training: a new emphasis
Roger W. Kleffman
Pages: 69-75
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478885
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During 1970 and early 1971, United Air Lines and IBM implemented a PARS-based (Programmed Airline Reservations System) reservations system. This system is written in Assembly Language Coding for the IBM 360/65. The software is special purpose, dedicated ...
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Computer training, present and future
Gordon A. Smith
Pages: 77-101
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478886
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Before beginning this discussion, I would like to make a few remarks concerning the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is responsible to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for unmanned missions in deep ...
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SESSION: Software design for the mini-computer
The future of minicomputer programming
D. J. Waks, A. B. Kronenberg
Pages: 103-109
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478888
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The programming of minicomputers to date has resembled Pooh Bear coming downstairs because although we feel that there really is another way, we rarely stop bumping. Programmers for small computers have long exhibited what we call "the minicomputer syndrome", ...
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The current state of minicomputer software
Joseph F. Ossanna
Pages: 111-118
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478889
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No one who has watched the spectacular growth of the minicomputer industry needs to be told that people are finding new small computer applications at an astonishing rate. Undoubtedly there are many reasons for this striking increase in minicomputer ...
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Real-time fault detection for small computers
J. R. Allen, S. S. Yau
Pages: 119-127
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478890
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Advancing technology and declining costs have led to a sharp increase in the number and variety of small computers in use. Because small computers are readily suited for many real-time applications, a great deal of work has been directed toward simplifying ...
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SESSION: Techniques for developing large programming systems
An organization for successful project management
Don Smith, Jr.
Pages: 129-140
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478892
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Successful software development requires that the product be accepted, that schedules are met, and that costs are acceptable. The number of software development efforts that do not meet one or more of these criteria is large. Conversely, there are many ...
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Commercial data processing machines in government applications
J. D. Aron
Pages: 141-153
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478893
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When a major military weapons system is designed, it is often so far ahead of the then current commercial technology that special approaches are needed to make the system feasible. This has led to the development of many special purpose computing systems ...
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Programming language efficiency in real-time software systems
J. O. Henriksen, R. E. Merwin
Pages: 155-161
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478894
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Early in the development cycle of a real-time software system, the designer must select one or more programming languages to be used in writing the system. As shown in Figure 1, there is available today a continuum of programming languages ranging from ...
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SESSION: Mathematical optimization theory and algorithms
A review of recursive filtering algorithms
Bernard Friedland
Pages: 163-180
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478896
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The recursive filtering theory introduced scarcely a decade ago by Kalman and Kalman and Bucy has been widely hailed as a major development in data processing, perhaps as important as the work of Weiner on linear filtering.
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On computational methods for dynamic and static optimization
D. H. Jacobson
Pages: 181-185
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478897
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In the 1960s the joint impact of fast digital computers and the space age stimulated the ingenuity of a number of researchers in optimization and prompted them to invent new and/or better (faster, more elegant) methods for solving, numerically, optimization ...
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Piecewise linear approximations of fewest line segments
D. G. Wilson
Pages: 187-198
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478898
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Schwerdtfeger has considered the problem of interpolation and curve fitting over a given partition by a sum of continuous sectionally linear functions. He showed how to construct an orthogonal system of these functions over a given partition and how ...
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Experimental results on a new computer method for generating optimal policy variables in (s, S) inventory control problem
P. E. Valisalo, B. D. Sivazlian, J. F. Maillot
Pages: 199-203
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478899
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The problem of developing a computable solution to the optimal periodic review stationary (S, S) inventory control problem has not received the same level of attention as the theoretical works first initiated in 1951 by the well-known paper of ...
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SESSION: New theoretical frontiers of computer science
Bounds on multiprocessing anomalies and related packing algorithms
R. L. Graham
Pages: 205-217
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478901
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It has been known for some time that certain rather general models of multiprocessing systems frequently exhibit behavior which could be termed "anomalous," e.g., an increase in the number of processors of the system can cause an increase ...
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Computation of recursive programs: theory vs practice
Zohar Manna
Pages: 219-223
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478902
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This note is actually an informal exposition of a part of a recent paper by Manna, Ness and Vuillemin. We have two main purposes in this note. First, we present some known results about computation of recursive programs, emphasizing some differences ...
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Mathematical concepts in programming language semantics
Dana Scott
Pages: 225-234
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478903
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In mathematics after some centuries of development the semantical situation is very clean. This may not be surprising, as the subject attracts people who enjoy clarity, generality, and neatness. On the one hand we have our concepts of mathematical objects ...
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Applications of language theory to compiler design
J. D. Ullman
Pages: 235-242
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478904
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There are certain aspects of language theory that have had, or can have, significant impact on the design and implementation of compilers. These areas are, principally, the subjects of context free grammars and syntax directed translations. It is perhaps ...
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SESSION: The ARPA network
The terminal IMP for the ARPA computer network
S. M. Ornstein, F. E. Heart, W. R. Crowther, H. K. Rising, S. B. Russell, A. Michel
Pages: 243-254
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478906
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A little over three years ago the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense (ARPA) began implementation of an entirely new venture in computer communications: a network that would allow for the interconnection, via common-carrier ...
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Computer communication network design: experience with theory and practice
Howard Frank, Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock
Pages: 255-270
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478907
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The ARPA Network (ARPANET) project brought together many individuals with diverse backgrounds, philosophies, and technical approaches from the fields of computer science, communication theory, operations research and others. The project was aimed at ...
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Function-oriented protocols for the ARPA computer network
Stephen D. Crocker, John F. Heafner, Robert M. Metcalfe, Jonathan B. Postel
Pages: 271-279
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478908
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Much has been said about the mechanics of the ARPA Computer Network (ARPANET) and especially about the organization of its communications subnet. Until recently the main effort has gone into the implementation of an ARPANET user-level communications ...
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McROSS: a multi-computer programming system
Robert H. Thomas, D. Austin Henderson
Pages: 281-293
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478909
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This paper describes an experimental "distributed" programming system which makes it possible to create multi-computer programs and to run them on computers connected by the ARPA computer network (ARPANET). The programming system, which is called McROSS ...
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Extensions of packet communication technology to a hand held personal terminal
Lawrence G. Roberts
Pages: 295-298
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478910
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Electronic communications technology has developed historically almost completely within what might be called the circuit switching domain. Not until the last decade has the other basic mode of communication, packet switching, become competitive. Thus, ...
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SESSION: Programming languages for specialized application areas
An overview of programming languages for specialized application areas
J. E. Sammet
Pages: 299-311
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478912
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There are more than 165 different programming languages in use in the United States today, where only higher level languages are considered as programming languages. If assembly languages were considered in this total it would obviously be much higher. ...
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The future of specialized languages
F. B. Thompson, B. H. Dostert
Pages: 313-319
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478913
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The prediction of the future, like the review of the past, has as its sole usefulness, the organization and purposeful direction of the present. Thus, in situations where there is rapid change, as there certainly is in the field of computing, prediction---though ...
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AMBUSH: a case history in language design
Stephen Warshall
Pages: 321-332
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478914
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AMBUSH is a language in which the user can describe a materials-processing/transportation network in an allegedly readable form. The AMBUSH Compiler transforms this description into a set of linear equations and inequalities and edits this set into an ...
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The data-text system: an application language for the social sciences
D. J. Armor
Pages: 333-342
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478915
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The enormous growth of special applications software has been the subject of much speculation and debate. While many of the developments are natural expansions into new application areas, many computer specialists argue that applications programming ...
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SESSION: New trends in the architecture of computer systems
LSI: implications for future design and architecture
S. F. Dennis, M. G. Smith
Pages: 343-351
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478917
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We attempt to justify a number of ways in which we believe LSI is most likely to affect systems design and architecture. It is not only the physical componentry of systems that will undergo change, but also our thinking, as an industry, about the goals, ...
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The rationale for logic from semiconductor memory
W. H. Davidow
Pages: 353-358
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478918
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Memory is the LSI component which we know best how to fabricate. Compared to other LSI (Large Scale Integrated) circuits, it is almost "standard", and because of the regular interconnection patterns which exist between memory cells, it can achieve very ...
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SYMBOL hardware debugging facilities
M. A. Calhoun
Pages: 359-368
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478919
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The SYMBOL system is a full-scale working demonstration of an ALGOL-like, high-level, general-purpose, procedural language and a multi-processing, multi-programming operating system implemented directly in hardware. The results have proven the versatility ...
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The Rice research computer: a tagged architecture
E. A. Feustel
Pages: 369-377
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478920
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In this paper we report on a new computer with several novel features. These features are applications of the concept of tagged architecture, and although some of them are not unique to the Rice Research Computer (R-2), they focus our attention on this ...
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SESSION: Computers in instruction---some considerations
A generative CAI tutor for computer science concepts
Elliot B. Koffman
Pages: 379-389
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478922
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Limited progress has been made in software for computer-assisted instruction. Frame-oriented CAI systems have dominated the field. These systems function as mechanized programmed texts and utilize the computational power of the computer to a minimal ...
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Preliminary thoughts about a UNIversal TEAching Machine (UNITEAM)
Joe K. Clema, R. L. Didday, M. Wessler
Pages: 391-397
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478923
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Computer Aided Instruction (C. A. I.) promises to make practical the goal of enabling each student to receive highly individualized instruction at some point in his educational career. C. A. I. has evolved over the last fifteen years from programmed ...
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Mainline CAI, necessary but not oppressive
C. Victor Bunderson
Pages: 399-405
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478924
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Two years ago the term "mainline instruction" was introduced as a referent to a carefully designed, total instructional system to replace complete courses with a far less labor-intensive mixture of men and machines. This mode was contrasted with the ...
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Should the computer teach the student, or vice versa?
Arthur W. Luehrmann
Pages: 407-410
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478925
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Once upon a time in the ancient past there was a nation in which writing and reading had not yet been invented. Society was as advanced as possible, considering that it had no mechanism for recording the letter of the law or of writing agreements, contracts, ...
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SESSION: Operating system design concepts
Performance evaluation: a structured approach
Stephen R. Kimbleton
Pages: 411-416
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478927
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Computer systems are expensive in terms of development, acquisition and maintenance. The efficient and effective system appears to be the exception rather than the rule. Concern for system improvement is voiced by almost every computer-related management ...
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Protection: principles and practice
G. Scott Graham, Peter J. Denning
Pages: 417-429
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478928
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The protection mechanisms of computer systems control the access to objects, especially information objects. The range of responsibilities of these mechanisms includes at one extreme completely isolating executing programs from each other, and at the ...
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PRIME: a modular architecture for terminal-oriented systems
Herbert B. Baskin, Barry R. Borgerson, Roger Roberts
Pages: 431-437
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478929
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The architecture of most interactive systems is based on the general strategy that suitable terminal service can be provided by a central processor that is timemultiplexed among all the active terminals. In order to achieve adequate response time in ...
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SESSION: Graphic terminals---present and next states
Computer graphics terminals: a backward look
Carl Machover
Pages: 439-446
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478931
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Five years ago, the price of admission into Interactive Computer Graphics was spending about $50,000 or more for the Graphics Terminal and associated hardware, plus writing almost all of the applications software, as well as much of the basic software. ...
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The future of computer graphics
Thomas G. Hagan, Robert H. Stotz
Pages: 447-452
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478932
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Predicting the future is a hazardous enterprise---especially in high technology where seers tend to be too optimistic in the short run (3--5 years) and over-cautious in the long run (10--20 years). In computer graphics, the forecasts started about 10 ...
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A versatile computer driven display system for the classroom
J. W. Willhide
Pages: 453-460
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478933
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The last two decades have seen education in the sciences, mathematics and engineering move from a practical base to the teaching of highly sophisticated abstract principles. The changes have been rapid and radical. Generally, they have affected subject ...
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GOLD: a graphical on-line design system
L. J. French, A. H. Teger
Pages: 461-470
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478934
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Computer programs do not "design." They blindly follow procedures that the computer programmer thought should solve a given class of problems. However, the methods of solution for many design problems are not a priori known. Actively inserting ...
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SESSION: Formal analysis of algorithms
Establishing lower bounds on algorithms: a survey
E. M. Reingold
Pages: 471-481
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478936
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Algorithms for various computations have been known and studied for centuries, but it is only recently that much theoretical attention has been devoted to the analysis of algorithms. Turing machines and recursive functions were the first approaches, ...
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Analysis of combinatory algorithms: a sample of current methodology
W. D. Frazer
Pages: 483-491
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478937
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The study of the computational efficiency and inherent limitations of algorithms for computer solution of problems drawn from classical continuous mathematics has been with us as long as general purpose computers themselves. Similar studies of algorithms ...
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On the complexity of proving functions
Andy N. C. Kang
Pages: 493-501
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478938
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Let f be a recursive function. We shall be interested in the following question: given x and y, how difficult is it to decide whether f(x) = y or f(x) ≠ y? Since the problem of deciding ...
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On the structure of Blum measure
Tsun S. Chow
Pages: 503-506
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478939
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We assume that the reader is familiar with the basic paper of Blum, and Borodin's paper on the existence of complexity gaps.
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SESSION: The computer in government---a tool for change
Management information systems, public policy and social change
Abe Gottlieb
Pages: 507-510
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478941
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I would like to address a few of my remarks to the character and implications of computer usage in government but before I do so, I might indicate that I'm with the Pennsylvania Office of State Planning and Development and my frame of reference has three ...
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Geographic information systems in the U.S.: an overview
Robert Amsterdam, Edward Andresen, Harry Lipton
Pages: 511-522
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478942
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A Geographic Information System (GIS) can be defined as one which is oriented to supplying information pertaining to the geography or spatial relationships of the information in the system.
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UNIMATCH: a computer system for generalized record linkage under conditions of uncertainty
Matthew A. Jaro
Pages: 523-530
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478943
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The Census Use Study of the Bureau of the Census is planning to release a computer program package to the general public providing a generalized record linkage capability, under the name of UNIMATCH (for UNIversal MATCHer).
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New directions in legal information processing
R. T. Chien, P. B. Maggs, F. A. Stahl
Pages: 531-540
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478944
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Present areas of application of computers to the law fall into three broad categories: (1) those involving applications of business accounting techniques such as in tax preparation and client billing, (2) those involving data management techniques such ...
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HOMLIST: a computerized real estate information retrieval system
Donald J. Simon, Barry L. Bateman
Pages: 541-544
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478945
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An automated information retrieval system for real estate dealers would be desirable when the number of business transactions is large and the file of available homes is also quite large. A manual search of such a large file may be tedious and, most ...
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Organization of a natural resources data bank system
Alvin J. Surkan
Pages: 545-551
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478946
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The growing dependence on electronic computers for analysis of geophysical and other environmental data, brings an increasing awareness that the organization of these data in storage and retrieval systems is intimately connected with the acquisition ...
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The command terminal: a computerized law enforcement tool
David M. Hudak
Pages: 553-558
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478947
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The most crucial problems being faced by local law enforcement agencies today are the collection, analysis, and utilization of police-oriented data. Information is the life blood of any law enforcement agency, and there exists a continuous requirement ...
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SESSION: Interactive systems
Experience gained in the development and use of TSS
Richard E. Schwemm
Pages: 559-569
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478949
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Six and a half years have elapsed since W. T. Comfort described TSS/360 to the 1965 Fall Joint Computer Conference. Since that time, much has been learned by IBM and its customers about time-sharing, about TSS, and about large-scale, interactive systems ...
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Multics: the first seven years
F. J. Corbató, J. H. Saltzer, C. T. Clingen
Pages: 571-583
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478950
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In 1964, following implementation of the Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) serious planning began on the development of a new computer system specifically organized as a prototype of a computer utility. The plans and aspirations for this system, ...
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Organization and features of the Michigan terminal system
Michael T. Alexander
Pages: 585-591
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478951
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This paper will explore some aspects of the Michigan Terminal System (MTS) developed at the University of Michigan. MTS is the operating system used on the IBM 360/67 at the University of Michigan Computing Center, as well as at several other installations. ...
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SESSION: Data communications---the past five years and the next ten years
Regulatory developments in data communications: the past five years
Philip M. Walker
Pages: 593-609
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478953
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Since its creation in 1934, the Federal Communications Commission has exercised regulatory jurisdiction over all interstate common carrier communications service in the U.S. The Commission has broad powers to review rates and tariffs, determine investment ...
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Data communications in 1980: a capital market view
Robert E. La Blanc, W. E. Himsworth
Pages: 611-616
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478954
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Communications industry revenues presently represent approximately 2 percent of the GNP and are growing substantially faster than the GNP. The important question thus arises as to what capital resources will be available to support continued growth in ...
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Allocation of copies of a file in an information network
R. G. Casey
Pages: 617-625
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478955
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We consider a mathematical model of an information network of n nodes, some of which contain copies of a given data file. Within this network, every node is able to communicate with every other node over communication links (a process which may ...
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SESSION: Manpower for computers---heyday or cutback
Production and utilization of computer manpower in U.S. higher education
John W. Hamblen
Pages: 627-632
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478957
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During the past five years the Computer Science Project of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) has conducted three surveys on Computers in U.S. Higher Education including their utilization and related educational programs. These studies have ...
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Sources of trained computer personnel: a quantitative survey
Bruce Gilchrist, Richard E. Weber
Pages: 633-640
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478958
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The economic recession of the past two years has emphasized the need for better overall manpower planning in the computer field. However, such planning can only be accomplished if there are reasonably reliable data on both the sources of trained personnel ...
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Employment of trained computer personnel: a quantitative survey
Bruce Gilchrist, Richard E. Weber
Pages: 641-648
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478959
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After several years of chronic shortages of trained personnel, the economic recession of the past two years has resulted in some unemployment within the computer field. This unemployment has emphasized the long existing need for better overall manpower ...
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Sociological analysis of public attitudes toward computers and information files
Ronald E. Anderson
Pages: 649-657
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478960
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As individuals increasingly experience a variety of contacts with computers, it becomes important to know something about the impact of these contacts and how different sectors of society feel about computerization. Such knowledge would (not only) give ...
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SESSION: Microprogramming enters a new ERA
Microprogrammed significance arithmetic: a perspective and feasibility study
C. V. Ramamoorthy, M. Tsuchiya
Pages: 659-673
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478962
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This study is an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of microprogrammed routines for monitoring significant digits in the numerical result of digital computers in real time. The first part is tutorial and, in the second part, microprograms for two methods ...
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Architectural considerations of a signal processor under microprogram control
Y. S. Wu
Pages: 675-683
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478963
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The application of microprogramming to seismic, acoustic and radar processing is well-known. The system architecture required to address wide bandwidth signal processing problems is of a general form shown in Figure 1. In order to provide the high throughput ...
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A building block approach to multiprocessing
R. L. Davis, S. Zucker, C. M. Campbell
Pages: 685-703
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478964
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Today most computing systems have dedicated, self-contained, single processors. When the load on the system exceeds its processing capabilities, it is necessary to replace the original system with one of greater capacity. It would be far better if the ...
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The interpreter: a microprogrammable building block system
E. W. Reigel, U. Faber, D. A. Fisher
Pages: 705-723
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478965
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Digital computing systems have traditionally been described as being composed of the five basic units: input, output, memory, arithmetic/logic, and control (see Figure 1). Machine instructions and data communicated among these units (as indicated by ...
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SESSION: Performance prediction---modeling and measurement
Modeling, measurement and computer power
G. Estrin, R. R. Muntz, R. C. Uzgalis
Pages: 725-738
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478967
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Since the early 1960s the literature reveals increasing concern with effectiveness of information processing systems and our ability to predict influences of system parameters. A recent survey paper discusses methods of performance evaluation related ...
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Experiments in page activity determination
John G. Williams
Pages: 739-747
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478968
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In a memory hierarchy various storage devices are structured into various levels. By convention, information at storage level i may be accessed and stored in less time than information at storage level i+1. Since a smaller access time generally ...
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Validation of a trace-driven CDC 6400 simulation
J. D. Noe, G. J. Nutt
Pages: 749-757
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478969
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A computer center typically faces questions of how to deal with a growing load in the face of tight financial constraints and with the need for lead time for planning ways to meet the demand. The needs may be met by altering the equipment configuration, ...
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The evaluation of a time-sharing page demand system
Juan Rodriguez-Rosell, Jean-Pierre Dupuy
Pages: 759-765
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478970
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The techniques of multiprogramming originated in an attempt to better utilize a computer system's resources. Multiprogramming supervisory systems are usually rather complicated and their performance is still poorly understood. Some of the reasons why ...
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SESSION: LSI perspectives---architecture and cost of small computers
LSI and minicomputer system architecture
L. Seligman
Pages: 767-773
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478972
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The direct impact of Large Scale Integration (LSI) on minicomputer system architecture has been and will continue to be evolutionary and incremental, not revolutionary.
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Approaching the minicomputer on a silicon chip: progress and expectations for LSI circuits
H. G. Rudenberg
Pages: 775-781
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478973
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Technological progress in semiconductor integrated circuits during the last five years has been truly astounding, and the results of this progress are being aggressively exploited in the designs of new minicomputers. During the 1960s, effort in minicomputer ...
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The external access network of a modular computer system
Jesse T. Quatse, Pierre Gaulene, Donald Dodge
Pages: 783-790
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478974
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A modular time-sharing computer system, called PRIME, is currently under development at the University of California, Berkeley. Basically, PRIME consists of sets of modules such as processors, primary memory modules, and disk drives, which are dynamically ...
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SESSION: Computer simulation as a decision maker's tool
An over-the-shoulder look at discrete simulation languages
Ira M. Kay
Pages: 791-798
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478976
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The past of simulation languages resembles any other history of a subject. For those interested in computers, it presents an absorbing story with moments of outstanding achievement. When Shakespeare said "The Past is the Prologue" he preceded the age ...
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OSSL: a specialized language for simulating computer systems
Prem Bhushan Dewan, C. E. Donaghey, Joe B. Wyatt
Pages: 799-814
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478977
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The need for evaluating the performance of contemporary computer systems is well recognized by the manufacturers as well as the users of these systems. The evaluation is difficult because of the complexities and sophistication of the computer hardware ...
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Discrete computer simulation: technology and applications---the next ten years
John Norris Maguire
Pages: 815-826
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478978
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Digital computer simulation is an effective method of pretesting proposed systems, plans or policies prior to the development of expensive prototypes, field tests or actual implementations. In simulation analysis the computer traces out in detail the ...
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SESSION: The dilemma of installation management
The emergence of the computer utility
R. S. Manna, H. Waldburger, D. R. Whitson
Pages: 827-831
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478980
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By 1970 some users had regained control of the computer. This occurred because an operational mode had come into existence that permitted the man and the computer to simultaneously attain the productive heights that each had previously, but separately, ...
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Installation management: the next ten years
Ronald M. Rutledge
Pages: 833-839
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478981
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In this paper we will give our extrapolation of the exciting challenges facing installation managers in the coming years and how we expect to react to these challenges. We view the evolution to the present stage as having gone through three generations ...
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SESSION: An evaluation of the state of computer science education
A set of goals and approaches for education in computer science
Saul Amarel
Pages: 841-846
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478983
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In order to evaluate and plan educational programs in computer science it is important to have a clear conception of the internal structure and content of the discipline, and also of its relationships with other disciplines. It is also important to have ...
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Computer science education: the need for interaction
M. Stuart Lynn
Pages: 847-848
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478984
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I would suggest that one of the central problems of computer science today is understanding what it's for. As a consequence, given this hypothesis, from an educational standpoint it is not clear what students are expected to represent when they graduate ...
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Operating systems principles and undergraduate computer science curricula
Peter J. Denning
Pages: 849-855
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478985
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In the years since 1969, the study of computer systems has assumed a role nearly equal in importance to "theory of computation" and "programming" in computer science curricula. In contrast, computer systems was regarded as recently as 1965 as being inferior ...
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Theory of computing in computer science education
Patrick C. Fischer
Pages: 857-864
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478986
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Theory of computing means the abstract study of the nature of computation and computing devices. By convention, the terminology is usually applied in a narrower sense to exclude numerical analysis. Thus, theory of computing includes the theory ...
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SESSION: Scientific computation---the social sciences
Social science computing: 1967-1972
Hugh F. Cline
Pages: 865-873
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478988
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Social science computing continues to grow both in quantity and variety of problem applications. Increasing numbers of social scientists are using increasing amounts of computer time on an increasing array of machines. Social scientists have upgraded ...
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Future developments in social science computing
George Sadowsky
Pages: 875-883
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478989
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The set of computer related activities characterized by the term "social science computing" is both diverse and extensive. During the past 15 years, such activities have grown substantially both in scope and in volume and have become increasingly important ...
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A computer model of simple forms of learning in infants
Thomas L. Jones
Pages: 885-895
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478990
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Many workers have studied the problem of getting machines to exhibit aspects of intelligent behavior. It has become clear that a major limitation of the artificial intelligence field is the cost and difficulty of programming, which remains essentially ...
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An information management system for scientific gaming in the social sciences
Robert C. Noel, Thomas Jackson
Pages: 897-905
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478991
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During the past decade, the use of gaming techniques has spread among social scientists. Beginning primarily in the fields of international strategic studies and business management, gaming is now used in such areas as urban studies, general economics, ...
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SESSION: Programming for process control and real time applications
The development of process control software
James D. Schoeffler
Pages: 907-914
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478993
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The use of on-line, real-time computers for control of industrial processes has been increasing rapidly during the past ten years. That the cost of the software necessary to implement such systems exceeds even the hardware costs became clear in the initial ...
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Future trends in software development for real-time industrial automation
H. E. Pike
Pages: 915-923
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478994
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"The_____is a desk-size, stored program computer. It has a medium-scale capacity and uses a single address system. The_____ has all the advantages of high component reliability, automatic operation, and ease of programming."
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Scheduling of time critical processes
Omri Serlin
Pages: 925-932
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478995
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In real-time applications, the computer is often required to service programs in response to external signals, and to guarantee that each such program is completely processed within a specified interval following the occurrence of the initiating signal. ...
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SESSION: ACM prize papers in programming languages and systems
A class of allocation strategies inducing bounded delays only
Edsger W. Dijkstra
Pages: 933-936
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478997
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We consider a finite set of persons, say numbered from 1 through M, whose never ending life consists of an alternation of eating and thinking, i.e., (in the first instance) they all behave according to the program cycle begin eat; think ...
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On modeling program behavior
Peter J. Denning
Pages: 937-944
doi>10.1145/1478873.1478998
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This is a paper about the history of the working set model for program behavior. It traces briefly the origins and bases of the idea and some of the results subsequently obtained. The physical context is a hierarchical memory system consisting of a severely ...
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SESSION: A spectrum of memory storage systems, now and in the future
Magnetic disks for bulk storage: past and future
John M. Harker, Hsu Chang
Pages: 945-955
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479000
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In the early days of electronic data processing, new application requirements arose that could not be met adequately by batch processing, a mode dictated by the sequential nature of card and tape input-output equipment. Users needed a device to store ...
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Ultra-large storage systems using flexible media, past, present and future
William A. Gross
Pages: 957-967
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479001
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This paper aims to survey past and present, and predict possible future ultra-large digital memory storage systems It is easy to describe what exists, but difficult to present meaningful predictions. To cope with this objective, characteristics of systems ...
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New devices for sequential access memory
F. H. Blecher
Pages: 969-969
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479002
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Two classes of devices are seriously challenging the electromechanical disk file for bulk storage applications---magnetic bubble and charge-transfer. These devices can be used for sequential access memory and feature solid-state reliability, small size ...
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SESSION: Graphic software
Two direct methods for reconstructing pictures from their projections: a comparative study
Gabor T. Herman
Pages: 971-984
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479004
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There are situations in the natural sciences and medicine (e.g., in electron microscopy or X-ray photography) in which it is desirable to estimate the gray levels of a picture at individual points from the sums of the gray levels along straight lines ...
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PRADIS: an advanced programming system for 3-D-display
J. Encarnacao, W. Giloi
Pages: 985-998
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479005
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The development of PRADIS was started in early 1968 as a vehicle to implement and evaluate new schemes of man-machine-interaction, data base organization, and hidden-line detection which were being developed in our laboratory. With time it evolved into ...
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MARS: Missouri Automated Radiology System
J. L. Lehr, G. S. Lodwick, L. J. Garrotto, D. J. Manson, B. F. Nicholson
Pages: 999-1003
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479006
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The primary role of the radiologist is to examine patients, usually with the help of ionizing radiation, in order to provide information of use in patient care. The radiologist functions as a consultant that is, patients are referred to him by many other ...
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"Sailing": an example of computer animation and iconic communication
Stephen M. Zwarg
Pages: 1005-1014
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479007
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The use of the visual process for the perception and assimilation of ideas is well recognized by educators, psychologists, as well as computer scientists. The popularity of movies and television and the concomitant growth in visual literacy of the viewers ...
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Computer description and recognition of printed Chinese characters
William Stallings
Pages: 1015-1025
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479008
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An increasingly important aspect of computer pattern recognition research is automatic pattern description. Investigators have emphasized that pattern analysis should be basic to any pattern recognition scheme. Pattern analysis may be defined as the ...
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Computer diagnosis of radiographic images
S. J. Dwyer, III, C. A. Harlow, D. A. Ausherman, G. S. Lodwick
Pages: 1027-1041
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479009
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The potential of optical scanning equipment and digital computers for assisting or replacing human judgment in medical diagnosis has been recognized by investigators for some time. A number of efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, ...
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SESSION: Computers in secondary education
The impact of computing on the teaching of mathematics
Walter Koetke
Pages: 1043-1049
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479011
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A discussion of the impact of computing on the teaching of secondary school mathematics must begin with an examination of how modern computing facilities have entered and are entering the schools. The manner in which facilities are obtained often influences ...
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Computing in the high school---past, present and future: and its unreasonable effectiveness in the teaching of mathematics
Warren Stenberg
Pages: 1051-1058
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479012
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Five years ago computing was trickling into the secondary school scene, but today it's a torrent. Various hardware and software developments over the last two decades have made the computer ever more appropriate for this environment. These developments ...
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SESSION: LSI perspectives---design automation: design and simulation
Computer-aided design of MOS/LSI circuits
H. W. Van Beek
Pages: 1059-1063
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479014
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The functional complexity of MOS/LSI packages has increased exponentially during the past seven years---from a 20-bit shift register with about 130 transistors in 1964 to a one-chip calculator with over 3500 transistors in 1971. This evolution has been ...
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The role of simulation in LSI design
J. J. Teets
Pages: 1065-1070
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479015
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Forecasts for Large Scale Integration (LSI) indicate that logic gate densities of 1000 gates per chip could possibly be obtained during the next decade. Supposedly, device and circuit innovations could be used to achieve even higher densities. There ...
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Implementation of a transient macro-model in large logic systems
N. B. Rabbat, W. D. Ryan
Pages: 1071-1078
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479016
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In large circuits, we are confronted with two problems. First, the modelling of integrated circuit modules using the normal methods of considering each element such as the general circuit analysis program---precise though it may be---can be excessively ...
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Functions for improving diagnostic resolution in an LSI environment
Madhukumar A. Mehta, Henry P. Messinger, William B. Smith
Pages: 1079-1091
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479017
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LSI implementation of digital circuitry opens the door to the consideration of dramatically new approaches to the design of system fault diagnosis. New constraints have been added, such as the difficulty of inserting test access points internal to large ...
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SESSION: Developments in biomedical computer technology
Computer-aided drug dosage
Lewis B. Sheiner, Barr Rosenberg, Kenneth L. Melmon
Pages: 1093-1099
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479019
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Major efforts have been devoted to the application of computational techniques to medical diagnosis, a difficult computational task. The amount of information necessary to perform an exhaustive diagnostic search is formidably large. The "costs" associated ...
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Automated therapy for nonspeaking autistic children
David Canfield Smith, Malcolm C. Newey, Kenneth Mark Colby
Pages: 1101-1106
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479020
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Earlier publications described our computer method for stimulating language development in nonspeaking children, sketched several case histories (Colby 1968), and gave statistical evidence that our high rate of success (71 percent) was due to our treatment ...
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An inferential processor for interacting with biomedical data using restricted natural language
Dale W. Isner
Pages: 1107-1124
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479021
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This paper describes the design and implementation of a natural language system (hereafter referred to as ENGOLISH) which was developed to support and enrich the utilization of computer models of physiological systems. In addition to providing capabilities ...
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An information processing approach to theory formation in biomedical research
H. Pople, G. Werner
Pages: 1125-1138
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479022
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The extensive literature on modeling of biological systems published in the past decade reflects the growing expectation that theories of biological functions can be subject to more exacting tests of consistency with the natural system, and yield more ...
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The clinical significance of simulation and modeling in leukemia chemotherapy
T. L. Lincoln
Pages: 1139-1143
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479023
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It seems certain that in the next thirty years---by the year 2001---the computer will become a major instrument in support of clinical practice. Part of our task today is to look beyond the frustrations, expense, and apparent waste of our present prototype ...
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Graphics software for remote terminals and their use in radiation treatment planning
Karl H. Ryden, Carol M. Newton
Pages: 1145-1156
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479024
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Interactive graphics' ability to provide a meaningful interface to investigators in a variety of applied fields has been recognized for many years. Nowhere is this promise greater than in medicine and the life sciences. Levinthal's interactive program ...
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Automated information-handling in pharmacology research
William F. Raub
Pages: 1157-1165
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479025
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Pharmacology in its broadest sense involves the multitude of interrelationships between chemical substances and the function of living systems. Since these interrelationships manifest themselves at all levels of physiological organization from the individual ...
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SESSION: The implementation gap in management information systems
Where do we stand in implementing information systems?
James C. Emery
Pages: 1167-1171
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479027
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By any reasonable yardstick the computer has been a fantastic success. It has grown in one generation from a laboratory curiosity to one of our major industries---perhaps the most vital one in our information-oriented post-industrial society. Raw computational ...
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MIS technology: a view of the future
Charles H. Kriebel
Pages: 1173-1180
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479028
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Industry tabulations for 1970 indicated there were some 85,000 computer installations in the world, valued in excess of $40 billion. By 1975 these figures are expected to double; in ten years they may be redoubled. The continuing exponential growth in ...
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Selective security capabilities in ASAP: a file management system
Richard Conway, William Maxwell, Howard Morgan
Pages: 1181-1185
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479029
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Although the general requirements of data security in file management and retrieval systems are fairly obvious, and have been often stated current practice does not provide even an approximation of these requirements and, in fact, current languages and ...
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A graphics and information retrieval supervisor for simulators
James L. Parker
Pages: 1187-1195
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479030
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Interest in simulation by computer has grown steadily over the last ten years. This interest has become even more strong in the last couple of years with the advent of popular interest in environmental and social systems. Frequently the most limiting ...
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NASDAQ: a user-driven, real-time transaction system
Nat Mills
Pages: 1197-1206
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479031
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By Christmas time of 1970, 1200 brokers active in the Over-The-Counter securities market nation-wide, had had a new Bunker Tamo CRT terminal placed upon their desk. Through these "NASDAQ" terminals, they would be expected to watch and change all their ...
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SESSION: LSI perspectives---the boundaries of computer performance
LSI perspective: the last five years
H. G. Cragon
Pages: 1207-1210
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479033
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An attempt to write the history of LSI over the past five years is a difficult task because of the lack of definition of just what is LSI---LSI means different things to different people; and there is little documented evidence on the successes and failures. ...
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Toward more efficient computer organizations
Michael J. Flynn
Pages: 1211-1217
doi>10.1145/1478873.1479034
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Two significant trends have evolved which will substantially effect the nature of computer organizations over the next ten years: 1. The almost universal use of higher level programming languages and corresponding decrease in the use of machine level ...
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