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top of pageABSTRACT

Triangle inequality violations (TIVs) are important for latency sensitive distributed applications. On one hand, they can expose opportunities to improve network routing by finding shorter paths between nodes. On the other hand, TIVs can frustrate network embedding or positioning systems that treat the Internet as a metric space where the triangle inequality holds. Even though triangle inequality violations are both significant and curious, their study has been limited to aggregate data sets that combine measurements taken over long periods of time.

The limitations of these data sets open crucial questions in the design of systems that exploit (or avoid) TIVs: are TIVs stable or transient? Or are they illusions caused by aggregating measurements taken at different times? We collect latency matrices at varying sizes and time granularities and study dynamic properties of triangle inequality violations in the Internet. We show that TIVs are not results of measurement error and that their number varies with time. We examine how latency aggregates of data measured over longer periods of time preserve TIVs. Using medians to compute violations eliminates most of the TIVs that appear sporadically during the measurement but it misses many of the ones that are present for more than five hours.

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Author image not provided  Cristian Lumezanu

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Bibliometrics: publication history
Publication years2006-2018
Publication count28
Citation Count169
Available for download15
Downloads (6 Weeks)90
Downloads (12 Months)852
Downloads (cumulative)6,070
Average downloads per article404.67
Average citations per article6.04
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Randy Baden Randy Baden

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Publication years2008-2012
Publication count9
Citation Count169
Available for download6
Downloads (6 Weeks)37
Downloads (12 Months)226
Downloads (cumulative)5,384
Average downloads per article897.33
Average citations per article18.78
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Author image not provided  Neil Spring

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Publication years1997-2017
Publication count57
Citation Count2,307
Available for download37
Downloads (6 Weeks)314
Downloads (12 Months)2,768
Downloads (cumulative)25,323
Average downloads per article684.41
Average citations per article40.47
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Author image not provided  Bobby Bhattacharjee

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Bibliometrics: publication history
Publication years2001-2018
Publication count77
Citation Count1,912
Available for download38
Downloads (6 Weeks)377
Downloads (12 Months)3,446
Downloads (cumulative)45,163
Average downloads per article1,188.50
Average citations per article24.83
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top of pageREFERENCES

Note: OCR errors may be found in this Reference List extracted from the full text article. ACM has opted to expose the complete List rather than only correct and linked references.

T. S. E. Ng and H. Zhang, "Predicting Internet network distance with coordinates-based approaches," in INFOCOM, 2002.
C. Lumezanu, D. Levin, and N. Spring, "PeerWise discovery and negotiation of faster paths," in HotNets, 2007.
J. Stribling, "Planetlab all pairs ping,"

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16 Citations


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The ACM Computing Classification System (CCS rev.2012)

Note: Larger/Darker text within each node indicates a higher relevance of the materials to the taxonomic classification.

top of pagePUBLICATION

Title IMC '09 Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement table of contents
Program Chairs Anja Feldmann Deutsche Telekom Laboratories / TU Berlin
Laurent Mathy Lancaster University
Pages 177-183
Publication Date2009-11-04 (yyyy-mm-dd)
Sponsors SIGCOMM ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communication
In-Cooperations SIGMETRICS ACM Special Interest Group on Measurement and Evaluation
PublisherACM New York, NY, USA ©2009
ISBN: 978-1-60558-771-4 Order Number: 532093 doi>10.1145/1644893.1644914
Conference IMCInternet Measurement Conference IMC logo
Paper Acceptance Rate 27 of 115 submissions, 23%
Overall Acceptance Rate 480 of 1,954 submissions, 25%
Year Submitted Accepted Rate
IMC '03 109 32 29%
IMC '04 157 39 25%
IMC '06 155 34 22%
IMC '07 140 39 28%
IMC '08 185 32 17%
IMC '09 115 27 23%
IMC '10 211 47 22%
IMC '11 220 42 19%
IMC '12 101 35 35%
IMC '13 178 42 24%
IMC '14 103 32 31%
IMC '15 96 31 32%
IMC '16 184 48 26%
Overall 1,954 480 25%


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top of pageTable of Contents

Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement
Table of Contents
SESSION: Security
ANTIDOTE: understanding and defending against poisoning of anomaly detectors
Benjamin I.P. Rubinstein, Blaine Nelson, Ling Huang, Anthony D. Joseph, Shing-hon Lau, Satish Rao, Nina Taft, J. D. Tygar
Pages: 1-14
Full text: PDFPDF

Statistical machine learning techniques have recently garnered increased popularity as a means to improve network design and security. For intrusion detection, such methods build a model for normal behavior from training data and detect attacks as deviations ...
When private keys are public: results from the 2008 Debian OpenSSL vulnerability
Scott Yilek, Eric Rescorla, Hovav Shacham, Brandon Enright, Stefan Savage
Pages: 15-27
Full text: PDFPDF

We report on the aftermath of the discovery of a severe vulnerability in the Debian Linux version of OpenSSL. Systems affected by the bug generated predictable random numbers, most importantly public/private keypairs. To study user response to this vulnerability, ...
Anomaly extraction in backbone networks using association rules
Daniela Brauckhoff, Xenofontas Dimitropoulos, Arno Wagner, Kavè Salamatian
Pages: 28-34
Full text: PDFPDF

Anomaly extraction is an important problem essential to several applications ranging from root cause analysis, to attack mitigation, and testing anomaly detectors. Anomaly extraction is preceded by an anomaly detection step, which detects anomalous events ...
SESSION: Online social networks (OSNs)
Understanding online social network usage from a network perspective
Fabian Schneider, Anja Feldmann, Balachander Krishnamurthy, Walter Willinger
Pages: 35-48
Full text: PDFPDF

Online Social Networks (OSNs) have already attracted more than half a billion users. However, our understanding of which OSN features attract and keep the attention of these users is poor. Studies thus far have relied on surveys or interviews of OSN ...
Characterizing user behavior in online social networks
Fabrício Benevenuto, Tiago Rodrigues, Meeyoung Cha, Virgílio Almeida
Pages: 49-62
Full text: PDFPDF

Understanding how users behave when they connect to social networking sites creates opportunities for better interface design, richer studies of social interactions, and improved design of content distribution systems. In this paper, we present a first ...
Network level footprints of facebook applications
Atif Nazir, Saqib Raza, Dhruv Gupta, Chen-Nee Chuah, Balachander Krishnamurthy
Pages: 63-75
Full text: PDFPDF

With over half a billion users, Online Social Networks (OSNs) are the major new applications on the Internet. Little information is available on the network impact of OSNs, although there is every expectation that the volume and diversity of traffic ...
SESSION: Application mix and traffic characteristics
TCP revisited: a fresh look at TCP in the wild
Feng Qian, Alexandre Gerber, Zhuoqing Morley Mao, Subhabrata Sen, Oliver Spatscheck, Walter Willinger
Pages: 76-89
Full text: PDFPDF

Since the last in-depth studies of measured TCP traffic some 6-8 years ago, the Internet has experienced significant changes, including the rapid deployment of backbone links with 1-2 orders of magnitude more capacity, the emergence of bandwidth-intensive ...
On dominant characteristics of residential broadband internet traffic
Gregor Maier, Anja Feldmann, Vern Paxson, Mark Allman
Pages: 90-102
Full text: PDFPDF

While residential broadband Internet access is popular in many parts of the world, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of such traffic. In this paper we describe observations from monitoring the network activity for more than 20,000 ...
Detecting traffic differentiation in backbone ISPs with NetPolice
Ying Zhang, Zhuoqing Morley Mao, Ming Zhang
Pages: 103-115
Full text: PDFPDF

Traffic differentiations are known to be found at the edge of the Internet in broadband ISPs and wireless carriers [13, 2]. The ability to detect traffic differentiations is essential for customers to develop effective strategies for improving their ...
SESSION: Access networks
Characterizing VLAN-induced sharing in a campus network
Mukarram Bin Tariq, Ahmed Mansy, Nick Feamster, Mostafa Ammar
Pages: 116-121
Full text: PDFPDF

Many enterprise, campus, and data-center networks have complex layer-2 virtual LANs ("VLANs") below the IP layer. The interaction between layer-2 and IP topologies in these VLANs introduces hidden dependencies between IP level network and the physical ...
Challenging statistical classification for operational usage: the ADSL case
Marcin Pietrzyk, Jean-Laurent Costeux, Guillaume Urvoy-Keller, Taoufik En-Najjary
Pages: 122-135
Full text: PDFPDF

Accurate identification of network traffic according to application type is a key issue for most companies, including ISPs. For example, some companies might want to ban p2p traffic from their network while some ISPs might want to offer additional services ...
Mining policies from enterprise network configuration
Theophilus Benson, Aditya Akella, David A. Maltz
Pages: 136-142
Full text: PDFPDF

Few studies so far have examined the nature of reachability policies in enterprise networks. A better understanding of reachability policies could both inform future approaches to network design as well as current network configuration mechanisms. In ...
On calibrating enterprise switch measurements
Boris Nechaev, Vern Paxson, Mark Allman, Andrei Gurtov
Pages: 143-155
Full text: PDFPDF

The complexity of modern enterprise networks is ever-increasing, and our understanding of these important networks is not keeping pace. Our insight into intra-subnet traffic (staying within a single LAN) is particularly limited, due to the widespread ...
SESSION: Tools/analysis
Sampling biases in network path measurements and what to do about it
Srikanth Kandula, Ratul Mahajan
Pages: 156-169
Full text: PDFPDF

We show that currently prevalent practices for network path measurements can produce inaccurate inferences because of sampling biases. The inferred mean path latency can be more than a factor of two off the true mean. We present the Broom toolkit that ...
An analysis of packet sampling in the frequency domain
Luigi Alfredo Grieco, Chadi Barakat
Pages: 170-176
Full text: PDFPDF

Packet sampling techniques introduce measurement errors that should be carefully handled in order to correctly characterize the network behavior. In the literature several works have studied the statistical properties of packet sampling and the way it ...
Triangle inequality variations in the internet
Cristian Lumezanu, Randy Baden, Neil Spring, Bobby Bhattacharjee
Pages: 177-183
Full text: PDFPDF

Triangle inequality violations (TIVs) are important for latency sensitive distributed applications. On one hand, they can expose opportunities to improve network routing by finding shorter paths between nodes. On the other hand, TIVs can frustrate network ...
Geolocalization of proxied services and its application to fast-flux hidden servers
Claude Castelluccia, Mohamed Ali Kaafar, Pere Manils, Daniele Perito
Pages: 184-189
Full text: PDFPDF

Fast-flux is a redirection technique used by cyber-criminals to hide the actual location of malicious servers. Its purpose is to evade identification and prevent or, at least delay, the shutdown of these illegal servers by law enforcement. This paper ...
SESSION: Content distribution and mobility
Moving beyond end-to-end path information to optimize CDN performance
Rupa Krishnan, Harsha V. Madhyastha, Sridhar Srinivasan, Sushant Jain, Arvind Krishnamurthy, Thomas Anderson, Jie Gao
Pages: 190-201
Full text: PDFPDF

Replicating content across a geographically distributed set of servers and redirecting clients to the closest server in terms of latency has emerged as a common paradigm for improving client performance. In this paper, we analyze latencies measured from ...
The nature of data center traffic: measurements & analysis
Srikanth Kandula, Sudipta Sengupta, Albert Greenberg, Parveen Patel, Ronnie Chaiken
Pages: 202-208
Full text: PDFPDF

We explore the nature of traffic in data centers, designed to support the mining of massive data sets. We instrument the servers to collect socket-level logs, with negligible performance impact. In a 1500 server operational cluster, we thus amass roughly ...
Characterizing podcast services: publishing, usage, and dissemination
Dinan Gunawardena, Thomas Karagiannis, Alexandre Proutiere, Milan Vojnovic
Pages: 209-222
Full text: PDFPDF

In this paper, we aim at characterizing podcast services both from publishers' and users' perspectives, and at analyzing the implications of these characteristics on the design of efficient dissemination systems. Specifically, our goal is to characterize ...
One-click hosting services: a file-sharing hideout
Demetris Antoniades, Evangelos P. Markatos, Constantine Dovrolis
Pages: 223-234
Full text: PDFPDF

File sharing using peer-to-peer (p2p) systems is a major Internet application and the leading source of network traffic today. However, the dominance of p2p systems for file sharing has been recently challenged by an increasing number of services, such ...
SESSION: Reachability
Impact of prefix-match changes on IP reachability
Yaping Zhu, Jennifer Rexford, Subhabrata Sen, Aman Shaikh
Pages: 235-241
Full text: PDFPDF

Although most studies of Internet routing treat each IP address block (or prefix) independently, the relationship between prefixes is important because routers ultimately forward packets based on the "longest-matching prefix." In fact, ...
Internet optometry: assessing the broken glasses in internet reachability
Randy Bush, Olaf Maennel, Matthew Roughan, Steve Uhlig
Pages: 242-253
Full text: PDFPDF

Reachability is thought of as the most basic service provided by today's Internet. Unfortunately, this does not imply that the community has a deep understanding of it. Researchers and operators rely on two views of reachability: control/routing- and ...
Measurement methods for fast and accurate blackhole identification with binary tomography
Ítalo Cunha, Renata Teixeira, Nick Feamster, Christophe Diot
Pages: 254-266
Full text: PDFPDF

Binary tomography - the process of identifying faulty network links through coordinated end-to-end probes - is a promising method for detecting failures that the network does not automatically mask (e.g., network "blackholes"). Because tomography is ...
SESSION: Mobile connectivity
Measuring serendipity: connecting people, locations and interests in a mobile 3G network
Ionut Trestian, Supranamaya Ranjan, Aleksandar Kuzmanovic, Antonio Nucci
Pages: 267-279
Full text: PDFPDF

Characterizing the relationship that exists between people's application interests and mobility properties is the core question relevant for location-based services, in particular those that facilitate serendipitous discovery of people, businesses and ...
Energy consumption in mobile phones: a measurement study and implications for network applications
Niranjan Balasubramanian, Aruna Balasubramanian, Arun Venkataramani
Pages: 280-293
Full text: PDFPDF

In this paper, we present a measurement study of the energy consumption characteristics of three widespread mobile networking technologies: 3G, GSM, and WiFi. We find that 3G and GSM incur a high tail energy overhead because of lingering in high ...
Where's that phone?: geolocating IP addresses on 3G networks
Mahesh Balakrishnan, Iqbal Mohomed, Venugopalan Ramasubramanian
Pages: 294-300
Full text: PDFPDF

Cell phones connected to high-speed 3G networks constitute an increasingly important class of clients on the Internet. From the viewpoint of the servers they connect to, such devices are virtually indistinguishable from conventional end-hosts. In this ...
SESSION: Social networks
Mining communities in networks: a solution for consistency and its evaluation
Haewoon Kwak, Yoonchan Choi, Young-Ho Eom, Hawoong Jeong, Sue Moon
Pages: 301-314
Full text: PDFPDF

Online social networks pose significant challenges to computer scientists, physicists, and sociologists alike, for their massive size, fast evolution, and uncharted potential for social computing. One particular problem that has interested us is community ...
Evolution of an online social aggregation network: an empirical study
Sanchit Garg, Trinabh Gupta, Niklas Carlsson, Anirban Mahanti
Pages: 315-321
Full text: PDFPDF

Many factors such as the tendency of individuals to develop relationships based on mutual acquaintances, proximity, common interests, or combinations thereof, are known to contribute toward evolution of social networks. In this paper, we analyze an evolving ...
Scalable proximity estimation and link prediction in online social networks
Han Hee Song, Tae Won Cho, Vacha Dave, Yin Zhang, Lili Qiu
Pages: 322-335
Full text: PDFPDF

Proximity measures quantify the closeness or similarity between nodes in a social network and form the basis of a range of applications in social sciences, business, information technology, computer networks, and cyber security. It is challenging to ...
SESSION: Routing
IXPs: mapped?
Brice Augustin, Balachander Krishnamurthy, Walter Willinger
Pages: 336-349
Full text: PDFPDF

Internet exchange points (IXPs) are an important ingredient of the Internet AS-level ecosystem - a logical fabric of the Internet made up of about 30,000 ASes and their mutual business relationships whose primary purpose is to control and manage the ...
Understanding slow BGP routing table transfers
Zied Ben Houidi, Mickael Meulle, Renata Teixeira
Pages: 350-355
Full text: PDFPDF

Researchers and network operators often say that BGP table transfers are slow. Despite this common knowledge, the reasons for slow BGP transfers are not well understood. This paper explains BGP table transfer delays by combining BGP messages collected ...
Understanding the efficacy of deployed internet source address validation filtering
Robert Beverly, Arthur Berger, Young Hyun, k claffy
Pages: 356-369
Full text: PDFPDF

IP source address forgery, or "spoofing," is a long-recognized consequence of the Internet's lack of packet-level authenticity. Despite historical precedent and filtering and tracing efforts, attackers continue to utilize spoofing for anonymity, indirection, ...
Quantifying ases multiconnectivity using multicast information
Pascal Mérindol, Virginie Van den Schrieck, Benoit Donnet, Olivier Bonaventure, Jean-Jacques Pansiot
Pages: 370-376
Full text: PDFPDF

Redundant connectivity (or multiconnectivity) between adjacent autonomous systems (ASes) is important for interdomain traffic engineering and fast recovery in case of failures. However, the redundancy of ASes business relationship links has not been ...
SESSION: Interference vs. overhearing
Non-intrusive, dynamic interference detection for 802.11 networks
Kan Cai, Michael Blackstock, Michael J. Feeley, Charles Krasic
Pages: 377-383
Full text: PDFPDF

In densely packed 802.11 environments, access-point domains significantly overlap and wireless hosts interfere with each other in complex ways. Knowing which devices interfere is an essential first step to minimizing this interference, improving efficiency ...
The importance of being overheard: throughput gains in wireless mesh networks
Mikhail Afanasyev, Alex C. Snoeren
Pages: 384-396
Full text: PDFPDF

A flurry of recent work has focused on the performance gains that may be achieved by leveraging the broadcast nature of the wireless channel. In particular, researchers have observed that nodes other than the intended recipient of a packet may overhear ...
Impact of transient CSMA/CA access delays on active bandwidth measurements
Marc Portoles-Comeras, Albert Cabellos-Aparicio, Josep Mangues-Bafalluy, Albert Banchs, Jordi Domingo-Pascual
Pages: 397-409
Full text: PDFPDF

WLAN devices based on CSMA/CA access schemes have become a fundamental component of network deployments. In such wireless scenarios, traditional networking applications, tools, and protocols, with their built-in measurement techniques, are usually run ...
Practical beamforming based on RSSI measurements using off-the-shelf wireless clients
Sriram Lakshmanan, Karthikeyan Sundaresan, Sampath Rangarajan, Raghupathy Sivakumar
Pages: 410-416
Full text: PDFPDF

WLANs have become an important last-mile technology for providing internet access within homes and enterprises. In such indoor deployments, the wireless channel suffers from significant multipath scattering and fading that degrades performance. Beamforming ...
SESSION: New media
Live streaming performance of the Zattoo network
Hyunseok Chang, Sugih Jamin, Wenjie Wang
Pages: 417-429
Full text: PDFPDF

A number of commercial peer-to-peer systems for live streaming, such as PPLive, Joost, LiveStation, SOPCast, TVants, etc. have been introduced in recent years. The behavior of these popular systems has been extensively studied in several measurement ...
Modeling user activities in a large IPTV system
Tongqing Qiu, Zihui Ge, Seungjoon Lee, Jia Wang, Jun Xu, Qi Zhao
Pages: 430-441
Full text: PDFPDF

Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) has emerged as a new delivery method for TV. In contrast with native broadcast in traditional cable and satellite TV system, video streams in IPTV are encoded in IP packets and distributed using IP unicast and multicast. ...
Inside the bird's nest: measurements of large-scale live VoD from the 2008 olympics
Hao Yin, Xuening Liu, Feng Qiu, Ning Xia, Chuang Lin, Hui Zhang, Vyas Sekar, Geyong Min
Pages: 442-455
Full text: PDFPDF

The 2008 Beijing Olympics was an interesting event from a VoD perspective because it involved near real-time video delivery at massive scales over multiple days of a high-profile event. We present some measurement-driven insights into this event through ...

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