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We present a new particle-based method that explicitly preserves thin fluid sheets for animating liquids. Our primary contribution is a meshless particle-based framework that splits at thin points and collapses at dense points to prevent the breakup of liquid. In contrast to existing surface tracking methods, the proposed framework does not suffer from numerical diffusion or tangles, and robustly handles topology changes by the meshless representation. As the underlying fluid model, we use Fluid-Implicit-Particle (FLIP) with weak spring forces to generate smooth particle-based liquid animation that maintains an even spatial particle distribution in the presence of eddying or inertial motions. The thin features are detected by examining stretches of distributions of neighboring particles by performing Principle Component Analysis (PCA), which is used to reconstruct thin surfaces with anisotropic kernels. Our algorithm is intuitively implemented, easy to parallelize and capable of producing visually complex thin liquid animations.


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Ryoichi Ando Ryoichi Ando

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Publication years2009-2017
Publication count14
Citation Count114
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Downloads (cumulative)3,896
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Author image not provided  Reiji Tsuruno

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Publication years2002-2019
Publication count30
Citation Count73
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Downloads (12 Months)185
Downloads (cumulative)3,894
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Note: OCR errors may be found in this Reference List extracted from the full text article. ACM has opted to expose the complete List rather than only correct and linked references.

{Har64} Harlow F. H.: The particle-in-cell computing method for fluid dynamics. Methods Comput. Phys, 3 (1964), 319--343.
{HKK07} Harada T., Koshizuka S., Kawaguchi Y.: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics on gpus. In Computer Graphics International (2007), pp. 63--70.
{HN81} Hirt C. W., Nichols B. D.: Volume of fluid vof method for the dynamics of free boundaries. Journal of Computational Physics 39 (January 1981), 201--225.
{KTO96} Koshizuka S., Tamako H., Oka Y.: A particle method for incompressible viscous flow with fluid fragmentation. Comput. Fluid Dynamics J. 29(4) (1996).
{KWT88} Kass M., Witkin A., Terzopoulos D.: Snakes: Active contour models. International journal of computer vision 1, 4 (1988), 321--331.
{MMS07} Mihalef V., Metaxas D., Sussman M.: Textured liquids based on the marker level set. Computer Graphics Forum 26, 3 (2007), 457--466.
{PTB*03} Premžoe S., Tasdizen T., Bigler J., Lefohn A., Whitaker R. T.: Particle-based simulation of fluids. Computer Graphics Forum 22, 3 (2003), 401--410.

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14 Citations


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The ACM Computing Classification System (CCS rev.2012)

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Title SCA '11 Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation table of contents
Conference Chairs Karen Liu Georgia Institute of Technology
Robert Bridson University of British Columbia
Editors Stephen N. Spencer University of Washington
Program Chairs Adam Bargteil University of Utah
Michiel van de Panne University of British Columbia
Pages 7-16
Publication Date2011-08-05 (yyyy-mm-dd)
Sponsors SIGGRAPH ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques
EUROGRAPHICS The European Association for Computer Graphics
PublisherACM New York, NY, USA ©2011
ISBN: 978-1-4503-0923-3 doi>10.1145/2019406.2019408
Conference SCASymposium on Computer Animation SCA logo
Paper Acceptance Rate 30 of 77 submissions, 39%
Overall Acceptance Rate 348 of 977 submissions, 36%
Year Submitted Accepted Rate
SCA '02 53 22 42%
SCA '03 100 38 38%
SCA '04 120 37 31%
SCA '05 100 35 35%
SCA '06 126 37 29%
SCA '07 81 28 35%
SCA '08 60 24 40%
SCA '09 67 26 39%
SCA '10 56 24 43%
SCA '11 77 30 39%
SCA '12 80 27 34%
SCA '13 57 20 35%
Overall 977 348 36%


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Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation
Table of Contents
SESSION: Fluids -- particle methods
A particle-based method for preserving fluid sheets
Ryoichi Ando, Reiji Tsuruno
Pages: 7-16
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We present a new particle-based method that explicitly preserves thin fluid sheets for animating liquids. Our primary contribution is a meshless particle-based framework that splits at thin points and collapses at dense points to prevent the breakup ...
A level-set method for skinning animated particle data
Haimasree Bhatacharya, Yue Gao, Adam Bargteil
Pages: 17-24
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: MovMov

In this paper, we present a straightforward, easy to implement method for particle skinning---generating surfaces from animated particle data. We cast the problem in terms of constrained optimization and solve the optimization using a level-set approach. ...
SPH granular flow with friction and cohesion
Iván Alduán, Miguel A. Otaduy
Pages: 25-32
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: MovMov

Combining mechanical properties of solids and fluids, granular materials pose important challenges for the design of algorithms for realistic animation. In this paper, we present a simulation algorithm based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) that ...
Hybrid smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Karthik Raveendran, Chris Wojtan, Greg Turk
Pages: 33-42
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Other formats: MovMov

We present a new algorithm for enforcing incompressibility for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) by preserving uniform density across the domain. We propose a hybrid method that uses a Poisson solve on a coarse grid to enforce a divergence free velocity ...
SESSION: Agents, crowds, and skinning
Simulating heterogeneous crowd behaviors using personality trait theory
Stephen J. Guy, Sujeong Kim, Ming C. Lin, Dinesh Manocha
Pages: 43-52
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Other formats: MovMov

We present a new technique to generate heterogeneous crowd behaviors using personality trait theory. Our formulation is based on adopting results of a user study to derive a mapping from crowd simulation parameters to the perceived behaviors of agents ...
Scenario space: characterizing coverage, quality, and failure of steering algorithms
Mubbasir Kapadia, Matt Wang, Shawn Singh, Glenn Reinman, Petros Faloutsos
Pages: 53-62
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Other formats: MovMov

Navigation and steering in complex dynamically changing environments is a challenging research problem, and a fundamental aspect of immersive virtual worlds. While there exist a wide variety of approaches for navigation and steering, there is no definitive ...
Physics-based character skinning using multi-domain subspace deformations
Theodore Kim, Doug L. James
Pages: 63-72
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We propose a domain-decomposition method to simulate articulated deformable characters entirely within a subspace framework. The method supports quasistatic and dynamic deformations, nonlinear kinematics and materials, and can achieve interactive time-stepping ...
Controllable hand deformation from sparse examples with rich details
Haoda Huang, Ling Zhao, KangKang Yin, Yue Qi, Yizhou Yu, Xin Tong
Pages: 73-82
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: AviAvi

Recent advances in laser scanning technology have made it possible to faithfully scan a real object with tiny geometric details, such as pores and wrinkles. However, a faithful digital model should not only capture static details of the real counterpart ...
SESSION: Fluids - mathematical formulation
A multigrid fluid pressure solver handling separating solid boundary conditions
Nuttapong Chentanez, Matthias Müller
Pages: 83-90
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We present a multigrid method for solving the linear complementarity problem (LCP) resulting from discretizing the Poisson equation subject to separating solid boundary conditions in an Eulerian liquid simulation's pressure projection step. The method ...
Mass and momentum conservation for fluid simulation
Michael Lentine, Mridul Aanjaneya, Ronald Fedkiw
Pages: 91-100
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Momentum conservation has long been used as a design principle for solid simulation (e.g. collisions between rigid bodies, mass-spring elastic and damping forces, etc.), yet it has not been widely used for fluid simulation. In fact, semi-Lagrangian advection ...
Mathematical foundation of the optimization-based fluid animation method
Kenny Erleben, Marek Krzysztof Misztal, J. Andreas Bærentzen
Pages: 101-110
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We present the mathematical foundation of a fluid animation method for unstructured meshes. Key contributions not previously treated are the extension to include diffusion forces and higher order terms of non-linear force approximations. In our discretization ...
A simple finite volume method for adaptive viscous liquids
Christopher Batty, Ben Houston
Pages: 111-118
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Other formats: MovMov

We present the first spatially adaptive Eulerian fluid animation method to support challenging viscous liquid effects such as folding, coiling, and variable viscosity. We propose a tetrahedral node-based embedded finite volume method for fluid viscosity, ...
SESSION: Motion capture
A data-driven appearance model for human fatigue
Joseph T. Kider, Jr., Kaitlin Pollock, Alla Safonova
Pages: 119-128
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Other formats: MovMov

Humans become visibly tired during physical activity. After a set of squats, jumping jacks or walking up a flight of stairs, individuals start to pant, sweat, loose their balance, and flush. Simulating these physiological changes due to exertion and ...
Human motion reconstruction from force sensors
Sehoon Ha, Yunfei Bai, C. Karen Liu
Pages: 129-138
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Other formats: AviAvi

Consumer-grade, real-time motion capture devices are becoming commonplace in every household, thanks to the recent development in depth-camera technologies. We introduce a new approach to capturing and reconstructing freeform, full-body human motion ...
Practical color-based motion capture
Robert Wang, Sylvain Paris, Jovan Popović
Pages: 139-146
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Motion capture systems have been widely used for high quality content creation and virtual reality but are rarely used in consumer applications due to their price and setup cost. In this paper, we propose a motion capture system built from commodity ...
Real-time classification of dance gestures from skeleton animation
Michalis Raptis, Darko Kirovski, Hugues Hoppe
Pages: 147-156
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We present a real-time gesture classification system for skeletal wireframe motion. Its key components include an angular representation of the skeleton designed for recognition robustness under noisy input, a cascaded correlation-based classifier for ...
A puppet interface for retrieval of motion capture data
Naoki Numaguchi, Atsushi Nakazawa, Takaaki Shiratori, Jessica K. Hodgins
Pages: 157-166
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: MovMov

Intuitive and efficient retrieval of motion capture data is essential for effective use of motion capture databases. In this paper, we describe a system that allows the user to retrieve a particular sequence by performing an approximation of the motion ...
SESSION: Fluids -- control and procedural modeling
Procedural fluid modeling of explosion phenomena based on physical properties
Genichi Kawada, Takashi Kanai
Pages: 167-176
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: MovMov

We propose a method to procedurally model the fluid flows of explosion phenomena by taking physical properties into account. Explosion flows are always quite difficult to control, because they easily disturb each other and change rapidly. With this method, ...
Preview-based sampling for controlling gaseous simulations
Ruoguan Huang, Zeki Melek, John Keyser
Pages: 177-186
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: MkvMkv

In this work, we describe an automated method for directing the control of a high resolution gaseous fluid simulation based on the results of a lower resolution preview simulation. Small variations in accuracy between low and high resolution grids can ...
Graph-based fire synthesis
Yubo Zhang, Carlos D. Correa, Kwan-Liu Ma
Pages: 187-194
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: MovMov

We present a novel graph-based data-driven technique for cost-effective fire modeling. This technique allows composing long animation sequences using a small number of short simulations. While traditional techniques such as motion graphs and motion blending ...
SESSION: Facial animation
Content retargeting using parameter-parallel facial layers
Natasha Kholgade, Iain Matthews, Yaser Sheikh
Pages: 195-204
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: MovMov

Facial motion retargeting approaches often transfer expressions by establishing correspondences between shared units of motion, such as action units, or spatial correspondences of landmarks between the source actor and target character faces. When the ...
Facial cartography: interactive scan correspondence
Cyrus A. Wilson, Oleg Alexander, Borom Tunwattanapong, Pieter Peers, Abhijeet Ghosh, Jay Busch, Arno Hartholt, Paul Debevec
Pages: 205-214
Full text: PDFPDF

We present a semi-automatic technique for computing surface correspondences between 3D facial scans in different expressions, such that scan data can be mapped into a common domain for facial animation. The technique can accurately correspond high-resolution ...
Real-time facial animation from live video tracking
Taehyun Rhee, Youngkyoo Hwang, James Dokyoon Kim, Changyeong Kim
Pages: 215-224
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: MovMov

This paper describes a complete pipe-line of a practical system for producing real-time facial expressions of a 3D virtual avatar controlled by an actor's live performances. The system handles practical challenges arising from markerless expression captures ...
SESSION: Deformable objects
Optimization for sag-free simulations
Christopher D. Twigg, Zoran Kačić-Alesić
Pages: 225-236
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: AviAvi

A common problem during the first few seconds of a cloth, hair, or flesh simulation is that the mesh sags under gravity, which can undo the work of hours of careful modeling. The typical response of increasing the stiffness of the mesh is unsatisfactory ...
Robust real-time deformation of incompressible surface meshes
R. Diziol, J. Bender, D. Bayer
Pages: 237-246
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: MovMov

We introduce an efficient technique for robustly simulating incompressible objects with thousands of elements in real-time. Instead of considering a tetrahedral model, commonly used to simulate volumetric bodies, we simply use their surfaces. Not requiring ...
Asynchronous integration with phantom meshes
David Harmon, Qingnan Zhou, Denis Zorin
Pages: 247-256
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: Mp4Mp4

Asynchronous variational integration of layered contact models provides a framework for robust collision handling, correct physical behavior, and guaranteed eventual resolution of even the most difficult contact problems. Yet, even for low-contact scenarios, ...
Element-wise mixed implicit-explicit integration for stable dynamic simulation of deformable objects
B. Fierz, J. Spillmann, M. Harders
Pages: 257-266
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: MovMov

In order to evolve a deformable object in time, the underlying equations of motion have to be numerically integrated. This is commonly done by employing either an explicit or an implicit integration scheme. While explicit methods are only stable for ...
SESSION: Motion editing
Biomechanically-inspired motion path editing
Noah Lockwood, Karan Singh
Pages: 267-276
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: MovMov

We present a system for interactive kinematic editing of motion paths and timing that employs various biomechanical observations to augment and restrict the edited motion. Realistic path manipulations are enforced by restricting user interaction to handles ...
Spacetime vertex constraints for dynamically-based adaptation of motion-captured animation
C. O'Brien, J. Dingliana, S. Collins
Pages: 277-286
Full text: PDFPDF

We present a novel technique for editing motion captured animation. Our iterative solver produces physicallyplausible adaptated animations that satisfy alterations in foot and hand contact placement with the animated character's surroundings. The technique ...
Perceptual evaluation of footskate cleanup
Martin Pražák, Ludovic Hoyet, Carol O'Sullivan
Pages: 287-294
Full text: PDFPDF
Other formats: AviAvi

When animating virtual humans for real-time applications such as games and virtual reality, animation systems often have to edit motions in order to be responsive. In many cases, contacts between the feet and the ground are not (or cannot be) properly ...

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