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This paper presents an analysis and empirical evaluation of techniques developed to support focus and context awareness in tasks involving visualization of time lines. It focuses on time lines that display discrete events and their temporal relationships. The most common form of representation for such time lines is the Gantt chart. Although ubiquitous in event visualization and project planning applications, Gantt charts are inherently space-consuming, and suffer from shortcomings in providing focus and context awareness when a large number of tasks and events needs to be displayed. In an attempt to address this problem, we implemented and adapted a number of focus and context awareness techniques for an interactive task scheduling system in combination with the standard Gantt chart and an alternative space-filling mosaic approach to time line visualization. A controlled user trial compared user performance at interpreting representations of hierarchical task scheduling, assessing different methods across various conditions resulting from interactive explorations of the Gantt and the mosaic interfaces. Results suggested a number of possible improvements to these interactive visualization techniques. The implementation of some of these improvements is also presented and discussed.

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Author image not provided  Saturnino Luz
Bibliometrics: publication history
Publication years2000-2015
Publication count64
Citation Count162
Available for download31
Downloads (6 Weeks)33
Downloads (12 Months)398
Downloads (cumulative)4,732
Average downloads per article152.65
Average citations per article2.53
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Masood Masoodian Masood Masoodian

Bibliometrics: publication history
Publication years1995-2016
Publication count64
Citation Count147
Available for download36
Downloads (6 Weeks)34
Downloads (12 Months)366
Downloads (cumulative)11,922
Average downloads per article331.17
Average citations per article2.30
View colleagues of Masood Masoodian

top of pageREFERENCES

Note: OCR errors may be found in this Reference List extracted from the full text article. ACM has opted to expose the complete List rather than only correct and linked references.

S. Card, B. Sun, B. Pendleton, J. Heer, and J. Bodnar. Timetree: Exploring time changing hierarchies. In IEEE Symposium On Visual Analytics Science And Technology, pages 3--10, 2006.
D. Huynh. SIMILE-Timeline., 2008.
M. Masoodian, D. Budd, and B. Rogers. A comparison of linear and calendar travel itinerary visualizations for personal digital assistants. In OZCHI'04: Proceedings of the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pages 124--133. Ergonomics Society of Australia, 2004.
R. Spence and L. Tweedie. The attribute explorer: information synthesis via exploration. Interacting with Computers, 11(2):137--146, 1998.
E. R. Tufte. Project management graphics: ET notebooks (Ask ET.\_id=000076. (retrieved March 2010).
E. R. Tufte. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Graphics Press, 2nd edition, 2001.
S. J. Waugh and D. M. Levi. Spatial alignment across gaps: contributions of orientation and spatial scale. Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics, Image Science, and Vision, 12(10):2305--2317, 1995.

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Title BCS '10 Proceedings of the 24th BCS Interaction Specialist Group Conference table of contents
Conference Chairs Tom McEwan IIDI, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK
Lachlan M. McKinnon SCMS, University of Greenwich, London
Pages 72-80
Publication Date2010-09-06 (yyyy-mm-dd)
PublisherBCS Learning & Development Ltd. Swindon, UK ©2010
ISBN: 978-1-78017-130-2
Conference BCS-HCIBritish Computer Society Conference on Human-Computer Interaction BCS-HCI logo

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Proceedings of the 24th BCS Interaction Specialist Group Conference
Table of Contents
SESSION: Information visualisation & retrieval
A structured review of information visualization success measurement
Nadine Amende
Pages: 10-16
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Information visualization research has been popular for nearly two decades, but a more widespread adaption of visualization tools is missing. We present a state-of-the-art in measuring information visualization success by means of a structured literature ...
User behaviour: searching for scholarly material using electronic resource discovery systems
Hanna Stelmaszewska, B. L. William Wong, Nazlin Bhimani, Balbir Barn
Pages: 17-26
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This paper reports on user behaviour when interacting with various electronic resource discovery systems (ERDS) while searching for scholarly material. It focuses on the search strategies applied by 34 students and researchers in Business and Economics ...
Interactive file searching using file metadata and visualization
Pedro Teixeira Daniel, Gonçalves Manuel J. Fonseca
Pages: 27-35
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Navigation and browsing on a computer system are usually done using the file system hierarchy. However, this is not the most adequate method to search or locate a given file at a later time, unless we know exactly where it is. In this paper, we present ...
SESSION: Research tools & methods 1
Using dual eye-tracking to unveil coordination and expertise in collaborative Tetris
Patrick Jermann, Marc-Antoine Nüssli, Weifeng Li
Pages: 36-44
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The use of dual eye-tracking is investigated in a collaborative game setting. The automatic collection of information about partner's gaze will eventually serve to build adaptive interfaces. Following this agenda, and in order to identify stable gaze ...
Comparing different eye tracking cues when using the retrospective think aloud method in usability testing
Anneli Olsen, Linnea Smolentzov, Tommy Strandvall
Pages: 45-53
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Research has shown that incorporating eye tracking in usability research can provide certain benefits compared with traditional usability testing. There are various methodologies available when conducting research using eye trackers. This paper presents ...
The Damage Index: an aggregation tool for usability problem prioritisation
Gavin Sim, Janet C. Read
Pages: 54-61
Full text: PDFPDF

The aggregation of usability problems is an integral part of a usability evaluation. Numerous problems can be revealed and given that there are usually limited resources for fixing or redesigning the system then prioritisation of the problem set is essential. ...
SESSION: Information visualisation
Novel user interfaces for diagram versioning and differencing
Darius Dadgari, Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
Pages: 62-71
Full text: PDFPDF

Easily available software for diagram creation does not support the comparison of different versions and the merging of such versions. We present new methods and techniques for easy versioning of general two-dimensional diagrams. Multiple novel versioning ...
Improving focus and context awareness in interactive visualization of time lines
Saturnino Luz, Masood Masoodian
Pages: 72-80
Full text: PDFPDF

This paper presents an analysis and empirical evaluation of techniques developed to support focus and context awareness in tasks involving visualization of time lines. It focuses on time lines that display discrete events and their temporal relationships. ...
Preference ranking of screen layout principles
Carolyn Salimun, Helen C. Purchase, David R. Simmons, Stephen Brewster
Pages: 81-87
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This paper presents the results of a study on the preference ranking of six layout principles (Cohesion, Economy, Regularity, Sequence, Symmetry, and Unity). Preference judgments were conducted using a forced-choice paired comparisons method. The findings ...
SESSION: Security & HCI
Evaluating the usability and security of a graphical one-time PIN system
Sacha Brostoff, Philip Inglesant, M. Angela Sasse
Pages: 88-97
Full text: PDFPDF

Traditional Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) are widely used, but the attacks in which they are captured have been increasing. One-time PINs offer better security, but potentially create greater workload for users. In this paper, we present an ...
Pictures or questions?: examining user responses to association-based authentication
Karen Renaud, Mike Just
Pages: 98-107
Full text: PDFPDF

Challenge questions are commonly used as a backup should users forget their "main" authentication secret. Such questions are notoriously difficult to design properly, and have sometimes allowed intruders to access the system via a back door simply by ...
Security in context: investigating the impact of context on attitudes towards biometric technology
Chris Riley, David Benyon, Graham I. Johnson, Kathy Buckner
Pages: 108-116
Full text: PDFPDF

Biometric technologies are increasingly being used in a diverse range of contexts, from immigration control, to banking and personal computing. However, there has been little research that has investigated how biometrics are perceived across these different ...
SESSION: Research tools & methods 2
Wizard of Oz experiments and companion dialogues
Jay Bradley, David Benyon, Oli Mival, Nick Webb
Pages: 117-123
Full text: PDFPDF

Novel speech systems such as the conversational agents being developed by the Companions Project ( can be simulated using the Wizard of Oz methodology. In this approach technologies that are not yet ready for testing by people ...
Barry is not the weakest link: eliciting secure system requirements with personas
Shamal Faily, Ivan Fléchais
Pages: 124-132
Full text: PDFPDF

Building secure and usable systems means specifying systems for the people using it and the tasks they carry out, rather than vice-versa. User-Centered design approaches encourage an early focus on users and their contexts of use, but these need to be ...
Draw me a storyboard: incorporating principles & techniques of comics...
Mieke Haesen, Jan Meskens, Kris Luyten, Karin Coninx
Pages: 133-142
Full text: PDFPDF

Storyboards are used in user-centred design (UCD) to clarify a scenario that describes the future use of a system. Although there are many styles of storyboarding, the graphical notation and language are very accessible for all team members of a multidisciplinary ...
Harnessing player creativity to broaden the appeal of location based games
Paul Coulton, Kate Lund, Andrew Wilson
Pages: 143-150
Full text: PDFPDF

Despite being the subject of considerable research effort location based games in general have failed to attain the popularity and longevity of similar activities such as geo-caching or orienteering. This leads us to the question are the games designed ...
Being safety smart: social issue game for child protective behaviour training
Christian Martyn Jones, Kay Pozzebon
Pages: 151-159
Full text: PDFPDF

Being Safety Smart is an online, social issue game designed to mitigate increasing child abduction rates in Australia. By teaching young children skills and strategies to help protect themselves, the game empowers children with the ability and confidence ...
Time perception, immersion and music in videogames
Timothy Sanders, Paul Cairns
Pages: 160-167
Full text: PDFPDF

People who play videogames often report the sense of immersion in the game with a particular feature of immersion being a loss of the sense of time passing. In this paper, we investigate if altering the degree of immersion in a videogame really does ...
SESSION: Health & social HCI
Human computer interaction and medical devices
Chitra Acharya, Harold Thimbleby, Patrick Oladimeji
Pages: 168-176
Full text: PDFPDF

To achieve dependable, usable, and well-engineered interactive devices in healthcare requires applied Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research and awareness of HCI issues throughout the lifecycle, from design through to procurement, training and use. ...
Designing a touch screen communication device to support social interaction amongst older adults
Julie Doyle, Zoran Skrba, Ronan McDonnell, Ben Arent
Pages: 177-185
Full text: PDFPDF

As people age, social connections can be lost due to a number of factors. Technology can enhance an older person's social connectedness, facilitating the creation of new connections, as well as the maintenance of existing ones. As part of the Building ...
Designing social networking sites for older adults
Lorna Gibson, Wendy Moncur, Paula Forbes, John Arnott, Christopher Martin, Amritpal S. Bhachu
Pages: 186-194
Full text: PDFPDF

The importance of older adults' social networks in providing practical, emotional and informational support is well documented. In this paper, we reflect on the personal social networks of older adults, and the shortcomings of existing online Social ...
SESSION: Industry papers
User experience at NCR: an organisational overview
Phil N. Day, Graham I. Johnson, Charlie Rohan, Chris Riley, Maggie Carlisle
Pages: 195-203
Full text: PDFPDF

In this paper the role of user experience (UX) in a large multinational corporation is presented in an historical perspective with recent organisational changes being described that have resulted in the UX role being placed in a central corporate team. ...
User experience methods and games: lessons learned
Remigius Fierley, Stephan Engl
Pages: 204-210
Full text: PDFPDF

The increasing expansion of the digital games market has led to a growing need for empirically based, high-quality evaluation of playability and game experience. For practitioners in the field of user experience the question arises, to what extent are ...
User interaction evolution in the SmartFactoryKL
Gerrit Meixner, Nils Petersen, Holger Koessling
Pages: 211-220
Full text: PDFPDF

In the SmartFactoryKL the intelligent factory of the future, the consortium of companies and research facilities explores intelligent future technologies. Being a development and demonstration center for industrial applications, the SmartFactoryKL ...
SESSION: Haptics, gesture & multimodal interaction
Haptic and visual rendering for multi-modal exploration of molecular information
Sara Comai, Davide Mazza
Pages: 221-229
Full text: PDFPDF

The paper presents a system for the multi-modal rendering of molecules. Chemists typically deal with phenomena that are not directly experienceable and usually described by huge amount of data awkward to understand directly. Software tools have been ...
Gesturing in the wild: understanding the effects and implications of gesture-based interaction for dynamic presentations
Adam Fourney, Michael Terry, Richard Mann
Pages: 230-240
Full text: PDFPDF

Driven by the increasing availability of low-cost sensing hardware, gesture-based input is quickly becoming a viable form of interaction for a variety of applications. Electronic presentations (e.g., PowerPoint, Keynote) have long been seen as a natural ...
Tool use as gesture: new challenges for maintenance and rehabilitation
Manish Parekh, Chris Baber
Pages: 241-249
Full text: PDFPDF

There are many ways to capture human gestures. In this paper, consideration is given to an extension to the growing trend to use sensors to capture movements and interpret these as gestures. However, rather than have sensors on people, the focus is on ...
Acceptance of mobile technology in hedonic scenarios
Marina Abad, Itxaso Díaz, Markel Vigo
Pages: 250-258
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This paper presents a novel acceptance model for scenarios in which people make use of mobile devices for leisure purposes. The use of mobile devices has such a dominant leisure component that user attitudes towards mobile adoption are strongly determined. ...
The times they are a-changin': mobile PIM is leaving the paper trail behind
Juha Leino, Sanna Finnberg, Kari-Jouko Räihä
Pages: 259-268
Full text: PDFPDF

Use practices in personal information management (PIM) evolve continually. The data from our two studies, a survey study (n=61) on to-do use practices and a diary/interview study (n=11) on smartphone use in PIM, suggests that electronic PIM has finally ...
Portable form filling assistant for the visually impaired
En Peng, Patrick Peursum, Ling Li, Svetha Venkatesh
Pages: 269-277
Full text: PDFPDF

The filling of printed forms has always been an issue for the visually impaired. Though optical character recognition technology has helped many blind people to 'read' the world, there is not a single device that allows them to fill out apaper-based ...
SESSION: Physical & urban HCI
Investigating a DTV-based physical activity application to facilitate wellbeing in older adults
Alex Carmichael, Mark Rice, Freya MacMillan, Alison Kirk
Pages: 278-288
Full text: PDFPDF

This paper describes a study that examined the usability and acceptability of a physical exercise application using the digital television platform for older adults. A key aim of this study was to obtain feedback from representative older users to inform ...
VR/Urban: Spread.gun - design process and challenges in developing a shared encounter for media façades
Patrick Tobias Fischer, Christian Zöllner, Eva Hornecker
Pages: 289-298
Full text: PDFPDF

Designing novel interaction concepts for urban environments is not only a technical challenge in terms of scale, safety, portability and deployment, but also a challenge of designing for social configurations and spatial settings. To outline what it ...
When clapping data speaks to Wii: physical creativity and performative interaction in playground games and songs
Jennifer G. Sheridan
Pages: 299-308
Full text: PDFPDF

In this paper, we explore how exertion interfaces can promote physical creativity and the role that this might play in performative interaction. In particular, we are interested in exploring how to design and develop devices and applications which use ...
SESSION: User experience
Talk to me: the influence of audio quality on the perception of social presence
Christina Dicke, Viljakaisa Aaltonen, Anssi Rämö, Miikka Vilermo
Pages: 309-318
Full text: PDFPDF

In this paper, we compare the impact of monophonic, stereophonic, and binaural human speech recordings in terms of their ability to induce the feeling of presence and influence the understanding of the emotional state the speakers were in. These factors ...
Measuring involvement with audio/video content
Nele Van den Ende, Jettie Hoonhout, Lydia Meesters
Pages: 319-327
Full text: PDFPDF

The authors believe that involvement is one of the key cognitive mediating factors between content and viewing experience. A questionnaire to measure involvement with audio/video content was developed. Results showed that 25 questions are probably sufficient ...
Observing learning and conceptual development through novel product interaction
Christopher Wilkinson, Pat Langdon, John Clarkson
Pages: 328-336
Full text: PDFPDF

Improving product usability through inclusive design consideration can enhance a products potential commercial success, whilst widening it's acceptability across an increasingly divergent market. An experimental approach was developed to encapsulate ...
SESSION: HCI in the market
Googling Bing: reassessing the impact of brand on the perceived quality of two contemporary search engines
Ahmed A. Ataullah, Edward Lank
Pages: 337-345
Full text: PDFPDF

Given the high value of the online search market, whether brand perception or quality of search results matters more for users is a highly salient question. This paper presents findings of the largest controlled, systematic preference elicitation study ...
Investigating the future of self-service technology
Paul Robertson, Andrea Szymkowiak, Graham Johnson
Pages: 346-349
Full text: PDFPDF

In this paper we describe an ongoing research project between NCR Dundee and Abertay University to investigate the future of self-service technology for entertainment. The aim was to assess how future technologies may be utilized in building a new system ...
Making a financial Time Machine: A Multitouch application to enable interactive 3-D visualization of distant savings goals
K. C. Scott-Brown, O. Ahrani Dahrani, N. Tandas, H. McIaughlin, R. Henderson, D. Cernagovs, J. Turner, H. Tarbert
Pages: 350-354
Full text: PDFPDF

Financial planning and decision making for the general public continues to vex and perplex in equal measure. Whilst the tools presented by a typical desktop computer should make the task easier, the recent financial crisis confirms the increasing difficulty ...
SESSION: Interaction methods
A study of two-handed scrolling and selection on standard notebook computers
Dominik Bial, Florian Block, Hans Gellersen
Pages: 355-364
Full text: PDFPDF

Although two-handed input can improve both efficiency and quality of user interaction, it is not commonly adopted as it requires additional input devices. In this paper we propose two-handed interaction on standard hardware - notebooks with external ...
Design and evaluation of a perceptual-based object group selection technique
Hoda Dehmeshki, Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
Pages: 365-373
Full text: PDFPDF

Selecting groups of objects is a frequent task in graphical user interfaces since it precedes all manipulation operations. Current selection techniques such as lasso become time-consuming and error-prone in dense configurations or when the area covered ...
A study of incidental notetaking to inform digital pen and paper solutions
Adriana Ispas, Beat Signer, Moira C. Norrie
Pages: 374-383
Full text: PDFPDF

With the aid of digital pen and paper technologies, information written on paper can be made available digitally without an intermediary transcription step. This creates opportunities to harness paper notes in ways that are only possible with digital ...
SESSION: Haptics to hardware next
An evaluation of sunlight-viewable displays
Phil N. Day, Jim Colville, Charlie Rohan
Pages: 384-392
Full text: PDFPDF

There is a need for displays that can be read even in adverse environmental conditions such as under high intensity, directed sunlight. This is particularly important in self-service terminals that may be placed in an exterior location. These terminals ...
MultiScroll: using multitouch input to disambiguate relative and absolute mobile scroll modes
Stephen Fitchett, Andy Cockburn
Pages: 393-402
Full text: PDFPDF

We propose MultiScroll, a general purpose hybrid scrolling technique that uses multitouch input to allow for a combination of rate based scrolling for navigating short and medium distances and zero-order scrolling for navigating large distances. The ...
Evaluation of an ambiguous-keyboard prototype scanning-system with word and character disambiguation
Julio Miró-Borrás, Pablo Bernabeu-Soler, Raul Llinares, Jorge Igual
Pages: 403-411
Full text: PDFPDF

Ambiguous keyboards are common in small-size devices such as mobile phones, but they can be applied to other fields such as Augmentative and Alternative Communications, and specifically addressed to people with severe motor disabilities. This research ...
SESSION: Research in progress 1
Tactile feedback for ambient awareness in mobile interactions
Stephen Brewster, Aurora Constantin
Pages: 412-417
Full text: PDFPDF

The study of tactile feedback has attracted increasing interest in HCI over recent years. Similar to icons, tactile messages, or Tactons, can encode and transmit information through the touch sense [1]. We report an experiment to investigate if we can ...
Foot tapping for mobile interaction
Andrew Crossan, Stephen Brewster, Alexander Ng
Pages: 418-422
Full text: PDFPDF

In this paper we present an initial investigation of foot tapping as a mechanism for interacting with a mobile device without removing it from a pocket. We compare a foot tapping technique for menu interaction with two more traditional situations: one ...
Wipe'n'Watch: spatial interaction techniques for interrelated video collections on mobile devices
Jochen Huber, Jürgen Steimle, Roman Lissermann, Simon Olberding, Max Mühlhäuser
Pages: 423-427
Full text: PDFPDF

With the advent of increasingly powerful mobile devices like Apple's iPhone, videos can be used virtually anywhere and anytime. However, state of the art mobile video browsers do not efficiently support users in browsing within individual, semantically ...
Salience of visual cues in 3D city maps
Timo Partala, Antti Nurminen, Teija Vainio, Jari Laaksonen, Miika Laine, Jukka Väänänen
Pages: 428-432
Full text: PDFPDF

An important activity in urban three-dimensional (3D) mobile navigation is browsing the buildings in the environment and matching them to those in the 3D city map. There are different factors affecting the recognition process such as changes in the appearances ...
SESSION: Research ideas & student work
Open-card sort to explain why low-literate usersabandon their web searches early
Neesha Kodagoda, B. L. William Wong, Nawaz Khan
Pages: 433-442
Full text: PDFPDF

The purpose of this paper is to report the possible reasons for premature abandonment by low-literate users during online searches. Previous evidence suggests that low-literate web users abandon their online searches early believing that the information ...
Towards the use of "negative effects" in technology design and evaluation
Michael Leitner, Bernhard Wöckl, Özge Subasi, Manfred Tschelgi
Pages: 443-447
Full text: PDFPDF

Negative effects of computer use are reported in different studies; but so far no standardized framework exists to work with these issues throughout a user-centred design process. "Negative effects" are the result of user, context and task characteristics ...
Designing dramatic play: story and game structure
Ben Rolfe, Christian Martyn Jones, Helen Wallace
Pages: 448-452
Full text: PDFPDF

Drama in games is created by the interplay of the narrative structure of story and the ludic structure of challenges. In this paper, we combine Csikszentmihalyi's model of engagement and flow with Freytag's pyramid, a model of narrative structure. Using ...
Towards a brain-controlled wheelchair prototype
Naisan Yazdani, Fatemah Khazab, Sean Fitzgibbon, Martin Luerssen, David Powers, C. Richard Clark
Pages: 453-457
Full text: PDFPDF

In this project, a design for a non-invasive, EEG-based braincontrolled wheelchair has been developed for use by completely paralyzed patients. The proposed design includes a novel approach for selecting optimal electrode positions, a series of signal ...
SESSION: Research in progress 2
CAWriter: a CSCW/CSCL tool to support research students' academic writing
Jake Rowan Byrne, Brendan Tangney
Pages: 458-462
Full text: PDFPDF

Within the larger framework of a research project aiming to develop CSCW/CSCL tools, to scaffold a cognitive apprenticeship model as applied to doctoral education, academic writing has been identified as a key process to be supported. By following a ...
Village eLearning: an offline mobile solution to rural communities? knowledge requirement
Souleymane Camara, Sujan Shrestha, José Abdelnour-Nocera, John Moore
Pages: 463-467
Full text: PDFPDF

This paper presents an offline mobile eLearning concept as an ICT solution to address the knowledge requirements of a rural sub-Saharan farming community. A socio-technical customisation and deployment of WikiReaders is proposed to support offline mobile ...
Designing for balance: Out There and In Here
Tim Coughlan, Anne Adams, Yvonne Rogers
Pages: 468-473
Full text: PDFPDF

This paper describes the 'Out There and In Here' project, in which we explore the combined use of mobile technologies and staticindoor technologies to support novel forms of collaborative field trip learning. We are currently developing a system to support ...
Community generated location based gaming
Mark Lochrie, Kate Lund, Paul Coulton
Pages: 474-478
Full text: PDFPDF

This paper presents the concept for community driven Location Based Games (LBG) that involve actively exploring and discovering public spaces similar to the characteristics seen in Geocaching. The game demonstrated in this paper attempts to utilise the ...
SESSION: Research in progress 3
Form and function: examples of music interface design
Richard Hoadley
Pages: 479-483
Full text: PDFPDF

This paper presents observations on the creation of digital music controllers and the music that they generate from the perspectives of the designer and the artist. In the case of musical instruments, what is the role of the form (the hardware) where ...
Teaching athletes cognitive skills: detecting cognitive load in speech input
Natalie Ruiz, Guang Liu, Bo Yin, Damian Farrow, Fang Chen
Pages: 484-488
Full text: PDFPDF

As part of their preparation, athletes are often required to complete cognitive skills training using targeted sports-specific software applications. When cognitive load is very high, the quality of performance can be negatively affected and learning ...

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